Reader’s Links for December 27, 2018

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Thank you all for those that take the effort to assist this site in keeping the public informed. Below, typically people can find the latest enemy propaganda, news items of related materials from multiple countries and languages, op-eds from many excellent sites who write on our topics, geopolitics and immigration issues and so on.

About Eeyore

Canadian artist and counter-jihad and freedom of speech activist as well as devout Schrödinger's catholic

127 Replies to “Reader’s Links for December 27, 2018”

      • I wonder if the food tastes different from the frozen meals we zap with a microwave?

        Very likely so. Although we are talking about a country where pork buns (char siu bao) have been made using chemically digested cardboard, just one look at the tony mall this thingamabob was being sold in tells me it goes for an easy $100–$200 clams a shot.

        Specifically, the sequential order of ingredient introduction means that individual flavors are locked in during different phases of the cooking process—unlike an ordinary heat-and-eat microwave oatbag.

        All the same, what happens if you have guests coming over? Suddenly, this thing more closely resembles an atomic-powered corkscrew. It’s definitely a product aimed at the singles and dieters markets. In such a large population base, there also emerges a cohort of young women who do not know how to cook for themselves.

        All of which conspires to make this bit of weirdness only slightly viable.

    • This contraption is a clumsy ménage à trois between a wok, a conveyor belt, and a bread machine with multiple personality disorder.

      One central problem is how the comestibles are over-packaged. Consider that the Mainland is home to nearly ONE QUARTER of our world’s population. Now, imagine if this combination catawumpus and veeblefetzer actually caught on. Whole new landfills would be necessary to accommodate all of the non-recyclable food-contaminated plastic waste.

      For the minor convenience—and anything that drips on the counter is NOT convenient—this machine’s food packets aren’t exactly cheap. If the price next to that food module was in Renminbi, then it was about $3.00 for a single (small) serving. That may not sound like much wonton* dough, but in Red China, it’s about the same price as a restaurant meal, if not a bit more.

      * Q.): Why do women like wonton so much?

      A.): Because, “wonton” spelled backwards is “not now”.

  1. Chadian Gunmen Attack LNA Camp in Southern Libya (aawsat, Dec 27, 2018)

    “A Chadian armed group attacked on Thursday a camp of the Libyan National Army (LNA) in southern Libya, leaving one person dead and 13 wounded, a local official said.

    The attack took place near Traghen, 902 kilometers (560 miles) south of Tripoli and about 400 kilometers north of the border with Chad.

    A spokesman for the Traghen municipality said the man killed was a fighter loyal to the eastern government in Libya that is allied to LNA commander Khalifa Haftar.

    The attack on the military camp on Traghen’s outskirts was thwarted by mid-day, the spokesman Khalid Chataoui said, noting that hospitals in the city are underequipped to treat the injured.

    There was no comment from the LNA on the attack.”

  2. Egypt’s Sisi calls on women to think before getting pregnant (memo, Dec 27, 2018)

    “Egyptian women should “think before deciding to bring a new child in to the world”, President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi said yesterday.

    Speaking at the opening of a mega infrastructure project in the coastal province of Alexandria, Al-Sisi said: “If you live in one room, how can you bring four kids to life? Where would they sleep? How would you look after their education?”

    His comments came in response to a documentary which aired recently showing a women talking about her life as a mother of six.

    “You are telling the story as if the state and I were criminal for not providing your needs,” the Egyptian leader said: “No, I swear to God you are guilty yourself.”

    Egypt’s population was reported to have reached 98 million in the second half of this year while unemployment reached 11.8 per cent.”

  3. 2,241 migrants die in Mediterranean Sea (memo, Dec 27, 2018)

    “A total of 2,241 irregular migrants have died in the Mediterranean Sea since the beginning of the year, the non-profit Spanish Refugee Aid Commission (CEAR) said Thursday, reports Anadolu Agency.

    In a statement, CEAR said the number of irregular migrants who have died in the Mediterranean Sea is very high in 2018 despite a decrease compared to the previous years.

    The number of irregular migrants who died on the route to Europe was 3,319 in 2017, 5,096 in 2016 and 3,771 in 2015.

    Also in 2018, a total of 118,423 people arrived to Europe from Africa by sea. This figure was 172,301 in 2017, 362,753 in 2016 and over 1 million in 2015.

    Meanwhile, in 2018, Spain has become the main route into Europe for irregular migrants from Africa.

    Nearly, 56,480 people have arrived to the coasts of Spain and 769 irregular migrants have died on the same route since the beginning of the year.

    The problem of irregular migrants could not be solved by bilateral agreements because a closed route would be replaced by another, the report said.

    CEAR called on European politicians to end “discourses on fear and hatred”.”

    • Middle East Monitor, aka: MEMO

      So, what do we do at MEMO?
      • We provide a focused and comprehensive coverage of Palestine, and its regional neighbours
      • We do so by gathering news through our extensive networks of partner organisations and correspondents on the ground
      • Not only do our readers enjoy up-to-date reporting, through our network of contributors, we also publish carefully reasoned commentaries rooted in factual evidence
      • We are also an essential point of reference for journalists, researchers, human rights organisations and NGOs

      Honorary Advisers to the Middle East Monitor

      • Dr Salman Abu Sitta, Palestinian author and member of the Palestinian National Council

      • Lord Nazir Ahmed of Rotherham, member of The House of Lords

      • Baroness Jennifer Tonge of Kew, member of The House of Lords

      • Dr Maria Holt, Lecturer of Democracy and Islam in the Centre for the Study of Democracy in the University of Westminster

      • Oliver McTernan, Co-Founder and Director of the Forward Thinking organisation

      • Professor TARIQ RAMADAN, Professor at Oxford University

  4. Indian court remands 10 suspected suicide attack plotters in custody (reuters, Dec 27, 2018)

    “An Indian court on Thursday remanded in police custody 10 people suspected of plotting suicide attacks in the New Delhi, while more investigations are carried out, a defence lawyer said.

    Members of the cell, which police said had links to an Islamic State-inspired group, were arrested in raids in Delhi and nearby cities on Wednesday, the National Investigation Agency said.

    M.S. Khan, a lawyer representing the accused, told the court they were innocent. The court remanded them in custody for 12 days.

    Police earlier brought the suspects to court, amid tight security, with their faces covered.

    Additional Sessions Judge Ajay Pandey ordered that proceedings be held in a closed session, with media and public excluded, for security reasons.

    The agency said it had recovered about 25 kg of explosive material, including potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate, as well as 12 pistols, a home-made rocket launcher and Islamic State-related literature.

    Khan told Reuters the rocket launcher was actually just a part from some farm machinery and the explosives were for fireworks to mark a Hindu festival.

    “There is a lot of fabrication. My clients are innocent,” Khan said.

    According to media, the interior ministry had written to state authorities in June about an all-time high threat to Prime Minister Narendra Modi ahead of the next general election, which must be held by May.

    The National Investigation Agency (NIA) said the cell was formed three months ago and identified the main suspect as a 29-yaer-old Muslim cleric.

    The cleric, who was working at a religious school in Amroha town, in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, and his associates had procured the weapons and the bomb-making material to carry out attacks at crowded places in and around Delhi, the NIA said.

    The accused include three Delhi students, three shopkeepers and an auto-rickshaw driver.

    The suspects were planning to strike “very soon”, NIA spokesman Alok Mittal told reporters.

    “Likely targets included vital installations, security establishments, important persons and crowded places.””

  5. Former Macron bodyguard in spotlight over consultancy work (reuters, Dec 27, 2018)

    “The presidency confirmed on Thursday it had written to Alexandre Benalla in the last few days demanding more details of business trips to several African countries and telling him not to claim any links to the government.

    The Benalla scandal marked a turning point for Macron’s presidency and popularity from which he has found it hard to recover as other problems have piled up, including a stream of anti-government marches and riots by “yellow vest” protesters.

    The affair erupted in July after a video surfaced of Benalla beating a May Day protester. Macron fired him, but was accused by political rivals of acting too slowly and being out of touch.

    Macron’s cabinet chief, Patrick Strzoda, asked the former bodyguard to provide “all relevant information” about his consultancy work, according to extracts from a letter published in the newspaper Le Monde.

    He also asked Benalla to adhere “strictly to protocol on secrecy … linked to your former responsibilities”.

    The president’s office confirmed the content of the letter.

    Benalla made a trip to Chad several weeks before Macron visited on Dec. 22 and 23, raising questions over whether he still had links to the president.

    Benalla, who is subject to a judicial investigation, has been quoted in several French news sites in recent days saying he was “shocked and scandalized” by suggestions that he had acted inappropriately.

    “Today I’m a consultant. I’ve been to around 10 countries in Africa,” he told Le Monde. “I’m not going to stop doing what I’m doing.”

    The news site Mediapart said Benalla was still traveling on a diplomatic passport received as part of his former job.

    The Foreign Ministry said on Thursday that it had asked Benalla in July to hand in two diplomatic passports, and was considering further steps.

    Macron’s approval ratings fell below 20 percent in early December, even as he responded to the protests with an array of measures including canning an unpopular fuel tax and raising the minimum wage.”

  6. Egypt’s top appeals court approves jail terms for 35 Brotherhood members over 2013 police station attack (ahram, Dec 27, 2018)–.aspx

    “Egypt’s top appeals court has sentenced 35 members of the banned Muslim Brotherhood group to between five and 15 years in jail over charges related to violence in 2013, in a final ruling that rejects the defendants’ appeal, a judicial source said.

    The case dates back to violence that followed the dispersal by security forces of two Cairo sit-ins supporting ousted Islamist president Mohamed Morsi in August 2013, weeks after his overthrow following mass protests.

    The defendants were charged with setting fire to a police station in Giza and assaulting security forces.

    The Court of Cassation on Thursday rejected an appeal from the defendants who had been found guilty by a lower court, and upheld the sentences.

    Egypt banned the Brotherhood and designated it a terrorist organisation in 2013. Most of the group’s leaders, including former president Morsi, are in jail on terror-related charges.”

  7. Algeria Deports Syrian Refugees to Niger (moroccoworldnews, Dec 27, 2018)

    “Algeria has deported dozens of Syrian refugees to Niger, saying they entered the country irregularly, reported Syria TV on Wednesday.

    Quoting a source, Syria TV said Algeria deported about 50 Syrians, including women and children, to Niger.

    The source added that the migrants had been stranded for 85 days due to their irregular status before they were deported. The source also expressed fear that Niger might deport the migrants back to Syria, a conflict zone since 2011.

    Several Syrian activists condemned Algeria’s move…”

  8. Morocco’s House of Representatives Passes Mandatory Military Service (moroccoworldnews, Dec 27, 2018)

    “The House of Representatives in Parliament passed Law 44.18 on mandatory military service at a plenary session on Wednesday.

    The delegate minister in charge of the National Defense Administration, Abdellatif Loudiyi, introduced the bill, which aims to “promote the spirit of sacrifice and self denial,” according to Maghreb Arab Press (MAP).

    The official welcomed the support of the members of the House’s Committee on Justice, Legislation, and Human Rights while it was reviewing the draft law.

    Loudiyi said that the amendments the commission presented enriched the law and ensured a consensus on the draft.

    Loudyi, however, did not give further details about the amendments.

    On Monday, the justice and legislation committee examined the draft bill on compulsory military service.

    One amendment the committee proposed would make military service obligatory before getting a job in the public service.

    The amendments, introduced by the coalition and opposition parliamentary groups within the committee, propose that citizens wanting to get public service jobs must have a document certifying that they completed 12 months of military service, reported Moroccan newspaper Akhbar Al Yaoum…”

  9. Pakistan rules out Indian role in Afghan endgame (tribune, Dec 27, 2018)

    “Pakistan on Thursday ruled out any role for India in Afghanistan, as it seeks to develop regional consensus to bring an end to the 17-year-long war in the neighbouring country.

    “There is no role for India in Afghanistan,” was the response from Foreign Office spokesperson Dr Muhammad Faisal when asked whether New Delhi had any role in the Afghan reconciliation process…”

  10. Turkish TV watchdog orders halt to show over actors’ remarks on Erdo?an (hurriyetdailynews, Dec 27, 2018)

    “Turkey’s television watchdog has ordered a halt to a television program on Halk TV for five episodes, while also ruling for a fine, over remarks of two famous actors on the president in a previous episode.

    The Supreme Board of Radio and Television (RTÜK) also ruled a three-episode ban and fine on the main news bulletin of private broadcaster Fox TV over anchorman Fatih Portakal’s “call for street protest.”

    The remarks by veteran actors Metin Akp?nar and Müjdat Gezen on a talk show on Halk TV on Dec. 21 “exceeded the boundaries of criticism” and were “promoting the people to hatred and enmity,” said RTÜK in a written statement on Dec. 26.

    “I believe that the only solution for us to get rid of this polarization and fights is democracy. If we can’t reach that point, then perhaps the leader will be hanged from his feet like it happened in all other fascisms of the past, or he will be poisoned in a dungeon or live the end of all the other [similar] leaders, but it will be ultimately our own destruction,” Akp?nar had said on the show.

    Gezen had directly criticized Erdo?an during the program. “He is rebuking everyone, he is pointing his finger at everybody, he tells people ‘to know your limits.’ Look, Recep Tayyip Erdo?an, you cannot test our patriotism. You should know your limit,” he said.

    A lawyer of President Recep Tayyip Erdo?an applied to the RTÜK on Dec. 25, demanding that Halk TV be fined for “not acting in line with the law” during the program in which the two actors made comments on “fascism,” which led to prosecutors launching a probe into them…”

  11. Bangladesh: Opposition decries mass arrests, attacks (AA, Dec 27, 2018)

    “The main opposition party in Bangladesh said it is facing mass arrests and attacks ahead of general elections on Sunday.

    The party on Thursday claimed 2,588 activists of BNP and its alliance were injured in 2,716 incidents of attacks across the country since election campaign started on Dec. 10.

    Some 9,200 activists were arrested and 806 cases were filed against them, said Ruhul Kabir Rizvi, senior joint secretary of the BNP, in a news conference at the party’s headquarters in capital Dhaka.

    “The government and Election Commission have come up with efforts to oust the opposition alliance from the general election,” he added.

    Police officials in Dhaka could not be reached for a comment despite repeated attempts…”

  12. Egypt jails Bro’hood leader for ‘insulting judiciary’ (AA, Dec 27, 2018)

    “An Egyptian court has slapped a Muslim Brotherhood leader with two years behind bars for “insulting the judiciary”, according to Egypt’s official MENA news agency.

    Mohamed al-Beltagy, a leading member of Egypt’s banned Muslim Brotherhood group, was convicted Wednesday on charges of “insulting the judiciary” after he smiled “sarcastically” when judges stopped him from questioning former president Hosni Mubarak, who had been giving court testimony.

    Under Egyptian law, Wednesday’s court ruling can still be appealed before a higher court within 60 days…”

  13. Middle East rocked by protest 8 years after Arab Spring (AA, Dec 27, 2018)

    “By the end of 2018, eight Arab countries were witnessing protests to condemn deteriorating economic conditions and demand higher standards of living. In a few cases, demonstrators have also articulated political demands.

    The protests — seen in Sudan, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan and Algeria — roughly coincide with the eighth anniversary of the “Arab Spring” uprisings, which kicked off in Tunisia in late 2010.

    Some Arab demonstrators have drawn inspiration from the ongoing “yellow vest” protests in France, which began in November to protest tax increases on fuel, along with other grievances.

    Sudan: From bread to Bashir

    Protests in Sudan began on Dec. 19 in 14 of Sudan’s 18 states, including capital Khartoum. Demonstrators decry rampant inflation — especially skyrocketing bread prices — and have also made other demands as well.

    The demonstrations appear to have escalated this week, with some protesters now explicitly calling for the departure of President Omar al-Bashir and his regime.

    While Sudanese officials put the total death toll from the protests — which in some places have turned violent — at eight, opposition groups insist that at least 22 people have been killed in the unrest.

    Tunisia: A new Bouazizi?

    The country that kicked off the Arab Spring in 2011 now appears to be witnessing a new wave of protests, which began on Dec. 24 in the western city of Kasserine.

    After the suicide of TV cameraman Abdel Razaq Zorgui, who killed himself to protest worsening socio-economic conditions, several clashes between demonstrators and security forces have been reported.

    Zorgui’s death has been compared to that of Mohamed Bouazizi, a disaffected Tunisian street vendor who fatally set himself alight eight years ago, sparking the popular uprising that would eventually bring down the Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali regime.

    Earlier this month, leftist protesters — calling themselves the “red vests” — began staging regular demonstrations against steadily worsening economic, social and political conditions.

    Morocco: Protests continue

    The latest wave of protests began in Morocco on Dec. 17, when workers from both the private and public sectors staged demonstrations in capital Rabat to demand better pay and improved conditions.

    One day earlier, Rabat had witnessed a protest march in which demonstrators demanded the release of those arrested while taking part in earlier protests in the country’s northern Al-Rif region.

    Hundreds of people were detained during the Al-Rif protests, in which demonstrators demanded more job opportunities and stepped-up local development.

    A number of the detained protesters still reportedly remain in police custody.

    Libya: Anger in the south

    In Libya, meanwhile, protests have been seen in several southern cities to demand more employment opportunities and greater regional development.

    On Dec. 8, protesters shut down the Al-Sharara Oilfield before demonstrations spread to other parts of southern Libya.

    Since then, Fayez al-Sarraj, prime minister of Libya’s UN-backed government, has vowed to allocate some $85 million for new service projects in the region.

    Lebanon: Three demands

    Demonstrators have also taken to the streets to protest worsening economic conditions in Lebanon. Protests have turned violent in some areas, with demonstrators blocking roads and forcing the army to intervene.

    As protests have spread from capital Beirut to other parts of the country, demonstrators have voiced three key demands: reduced fuel taxes, a viable public health system, and the re-issuance of interest on Lebanese treasury bonds.

    Lebanon’s precarious economic situation has been further aggravated by political wrangling that has delayed formation of the country’s incoming government.

    Iraq: Basra and beyond

    In Iraq, meanwhile, demonstrations have broken out several times in recent months, occasionally spreading to capital Baghdad.

    Since July 9, Iraq’s Shia-majority central and southern provinces — especially oil-reach Basra — have been rocked by protests to demand better public services, more job opportunities and an end to perceived government corruption.

    At one point, angry mobs in Basra attacked state buildings amid mounding popular dissatisfaction with the government.

    Since the protests began, scores of Iraqis have reportedly been killed in clashes with security forces.

    On Dec. 21, demonstrators in Basra blocked roads leading to the government’s provincial headquarters to demand the governor’s resignation.

    Jordan: Unpopular tax bill

    Protests also erupted in Jordan this summer after the government proposed a bill that would — if passed — raise taxes on income. The government also raised electricity prices five times this year, leading to further popular discontent.

    After eight days of demonstrations in May, Prime Minister Hani al-Mulki resigned, after which Omar al-Razzaz was tasked with drawing up a new government.

    But the protests resumed earlier this month after lawmakers finally approved the unpopular tax bill, with demonstrators now demanding Razzaz’s resignation.

    Algeria: ‘Show of strength’

    On Dec. 25, protests erupted in Algeria when a young man, Ayyash Mahjoubi, 31, died after being trapped in a well for six days in Algeria’s southern M’Sila province.

    Following Mahjoubi’s death, protesters prevented a government delegation from reaching the well, while delegation members were pelted with stones by angry residents who attributed the young man’s demise to government negligence.

    Two weeks earlier, tens of thousands demonstrated in the country’s restive Kabylie region to protest the suspension of a raft of development projects funded by a prominent local businessman.

    According to some observers, the demonstration in Kabylie — in which a number of opposition figures took part — represented a “show of strength” against Algeria’s ruling regime.”

  14. Man nabbed for trying to strangle pregnant girlfriend (ansa, Dec 27, 2018)

    “A 29-year-old Moroccan man allegedly took his pregnant girlfriend to an isolated road where he beat her up while accusing her of being unfaithful and injured her with a screwdriver before trying to strangle her, police in Forlì said Thursday after arresting the man.

    He held her for several days in a hotel where he allegedly threatened to kill her, they said.

    The victim is a 29-year-old Italian of Moroccan origin, police said.”

  15. Sea Watch at sea for six days in face of EU indifference (ansamed, Dec 27, 2018)

    “The NGO Sea Watch on Thursday said it is “still blocked at sea in yet another political limbo, in the indifference of Europe, which seems to not want to interrupt its vicious anti-migrant policy”.

    The NGO’s ship has been searching for six days in the Central Mediterranean for a port to land, following the rescue last Saturday of 32 migrants off the coast of Libya.

    It said five European countries have denied it permission to dock at their ports: Malta, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, and Germany.

    It said it had turned to Germany in recent days not only because the rescue ship flies a German flag, but also because more than 30 cities and various federal states said they are willing to take in the migrants, which include four women, four unaccompanied minors, and three young children.

    “We have been denied, for six days now, a safe port,” said Philip Hahn, head of mission on the Sea-Watch 3.

    “We are well-equipped, but the winter in the Mediterranean is taking its toll on the already weakened people. Europe must take responsibility now, and Germany should set a good example,” Hahn said.

    Sea Watch Italy spokesperson, Giorgia Linardi, said: “Just days after the UN report that revealed ‘unspeakable horrors in Libya’, European governments continue undeterred in supporting a system that provides for the forced reentry into Libya of those rescued”. “

  16. Ten Burkina Faso police officers killed in ambush (france24, Dec 28, 2018)

    “Ten police officers were killed in an ambush in northwestern Burkina Faso on Thursday, the west African country’s security ministry said.

    “The toll is 10 officers who have lost their lives and three wounded,” the ministry said in a statement, adding that a convoy of police from the Toeni region and reinforcements from the Dedougou area were ambushed.

    The officers were attacked while heading to the village of Loroni, near the border with Mali, after a school there had been attacked and textbooks torched by armed assailants, a security source told AFP.

    The wounded, including two in serious condition, were taken to a hospital in Dedougou, the source added.

    Burkina Faso has been increasingly hit by deadly attacks over the last three years.

    They began in the north of the country but have since spread to the east, near the border with Togo and Benin.

    On Wednesday, a police officer died during an attack on his station in the northern town of Solan.

    Most attacks are attributed to the jihadist group Ansarul Islam, which emerged near the Mali border in December 2016, and to the JNIM (the Group to Support Islam and Muslims), which has sworn allegiance to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb.

    Those groups are believed to be responsible for more than 255 deaths since 2015.

    The capital Ouagadougou has been hit three times and almost 60 people have died there.”

  17. NYT – New York SkyTurns Bright Blue Amid Reports of Fire at Con Ed Substation

    The apparent explosion made for a strange sight over much of Queens.

    A giant plume of smoke colored by bright blue light exploded into the night sky on Thursday night in Queens, causing people across New York City to gawk in awe as the authorities scrambled to figure out the cause.

    A spokesman for the New York Fire Department said it was investigating reports of a transformer fire at a Con Edison substation on the 1700 block of 31st Street in Astoria. The New York Police Department reiterated as much in a tweet, saying the blue light was the result of a “transformer explosion” and adding that “the fire is under control.”

    A spokesman for Con Edison did not immediately respond to a request for comment. The utility’s outage map showed only about 50 power failures as of 9:50 p.m. on Thursday, but that number was growing.

    It was not immediately clear if anyone had been injured by the explosion.

  18. Who Was Secretly Behind America’s Invading and Occupying Syria?

    The invasion and occupation of Syria by tens of thousands of jihadists who were recruited from around the world to overthrow Syria’s President Bashar al-Assad, was financed mainly by U.S. taxpayers and by the world’s wealthiest family, the Sauds, who own Saudi Arabia and the world’s largest oil company, Aramco. America’s international oil companies and major think tanks and ‘charitable’ foundations were also supportive and providing propaganda for the operation, but the main financing for it came from America’s taxpayers, and from the Saud family and from the Government that they own.

    One of the best articles that the New York Times ever published was by Mark Mazzetti and Matt Apuzzo, on 23 January 2016, “U.S. Relies Heavily on Saudi Money to Support Syrian Rebels”. They reported that, “the C.I.A. and its Saudi counterpart have maintained an unusual arrangement for the rebel-training mission, which the Americans have code-named Timber Sycamore. Under the deal, current and former administration officials said, the Saudis contribute both weapons and large sums of money, and the C.I.A takes the lead in training the rebels. … From the moment the C.I.A. operation was started, Saudi money supported it.” Furthermore, “The White House has embraced the covert financing from Saudi Arabia — and from Qatar, Jordan and Turkey.” But “American officials said Saudi Arabia was by far the largest contributor to the operation.” The invasion and occupation of Syria by jihadists from around the world was primarily a Saud operation, though it was managed mainly by the U.S. Government.

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