Reader’s links for June 22 – 2016

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In order to preserve the flow of conversation about various posted items, and also in order to make it easier for visitors to find the list of related links being shared by other readers, regulars and interested parties in one place, each day a post is automatically created at a minute past midnight ET.

This way, under the various posts of the day, conversation can take place without as much ‘noise’ on the various links and articles and ideas in the main posts and all the news links being submitted can be seen under these auto-posts by clicking on the comments-link right below these ones.

Thank you all for those that take the effort to assist this site in keeping the public informed. Below, typically people can find the latest enemy propaganda, news items of related materials from multiple countries and languages, op-eds from many excellent sites who write on our topics, geopolitics and immigration issues and so on.

About Eeyore

Canadian artist and counter-jihad and freedom of speech activist as well as devout Schrödinger's catholic

106 Replies to “Reader’s links for June 22 – 2016”

  1. Brussels (AFP) – The EU will open new membership talks with Turkey as planned in a few days, EU diplomatic sources said Wednesday, just as Ankara’s accession becomes a hot-button issue in Britain’s vote on its future in the bloc.

    One source, who asked not to be named, told AFP that EU member states will meet June 30 to agree to open a new negotiating chapter with Turkey on finance and budget affairs.

    A British spokesperson in Brussels said the decision was procedural and followed up a pledge made by European Union leaders in March to open another accession chapter with Turkey.

  2. Morocco: Poster on City Buses Calls for Excommunicating Non-practicing Muslims (moroccoworldnews, June 22, 2016)

    “A poster on city Buses in northern Morocco calls for excommunicating non-practicing Muslims.

    Intelligence and security forces in Tetouan, near Tangier, were on heightened alert over the widespread placement of radical religious posters calling explicitly to consider non-praying people and those who insult God and religion as infidels.

    According to the online newspaper Alyaoum24, posters calling for the excommunication of those who do not perform their prayers were anonymously hung in different locations in the northern city of Tetouan and on its “Vitalis” city buses.

    “Warning. This is the judgment of those who insult God, religion, or abandon prayer,” state the posters. Under these phrases written in bold, the poster displays a verse of the holy Quran about praying.

    It also says the word “Kafir,” or infidel, in stark white letters on a background of a pool of blood.

    The same source said that anonymous people had tried to spread their radical beliefs by hanging posters on the streets of the city and on some of its buses…”

  3. Infighting among Taliban in Herat leaves scores of militants dead (khaama, June 22, 2016)

    “At least 24 Taliban militants have reportedly been killed in the latest infighting among the rival groups in western Herat province which ended late on Tuesday.

    According to the local government officials, the incident took place in Pashtoon Zarghoon district after the supporters of Taliban Chief Mawlavi Haibatullah Akhundzada clashed with the dissident Taliban leader Mullah Rasool.

    Provincial governor’s spokesman Jilani Farhad said they are aware regarding the latest infighting among the rival Taliban groups…”

  4. Afghan forces to receive $3 billion a year from US from 2018 to 2020 (khaama, June 22, 2016)

    “The Afghan National Defense and Security Forces (ANDS) will receive $3 billion a year from 2018 through 2020, it has been reported.

    According to the reports, the issue has been shared by the US Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan Richard Olson on Tuesday.

    He informed regarding the commitment by US as he was at a think tank and said the United States planned to ask Congress for about $1 billion a year in development and economic assistance for Afghanistan from 2018 through 2020.

    This comes as reports emerged earlier that the United States and its allies are expected to raise $15 billion for the Afghan National Defense and Security (ANDSF) in the NATO summit scheduled for next month in Warsaw.

    The funds will be raised with an aim to fund ANDSF through 2020 as they face a resurgent Taliban following the full transfer of security responsibilities by the NATO-led coalition forces at the start of last year.

    The majority of the funds would be arranged by the United States that would include about $10 billion.

    The NATO leaders will also likely recommend to keep 9,000 foreign troops in Afghanistan into next year, although it’s unclear how many of them will be American.”

  5. the DAILY CALLER – Jihad: It’s Just This Simple

    Stephen Coughlin

    In the world of ISIS jihadis, there are no forms to fill out to send in a check to get a membership card. This is not the Sierra Club. When ISIS declared to its target audience of followers in the West that this year’s Ramadan (June 5-July 5, 2016) would be a time of jihad, if they heard the call and agreed with it, under sharia law they had a duty to act. The Orlando shooter heard the call, agreed with it, and therefore had a duty to act, and acted.

    It’s just this simple.

    Why was the Orlando shooter an ISIS jihadi? Because he said so. He was ISIS because he declared as such when he acted. Why? Because once he agreed with ISIS’s call to jihad, he had a duty to act based on a common understanding of the doctrines of jihad in sharia — Islamic law. Hence, it was a legal duty.

    It is the legal nature of this duty that binds the ISIS call to action to the Orlando shooter’s rampage. It is a simplified and coherent form of command and control that delivers chaos to the target population while defying western predictive and behavioral models of the same. Paris, San Bernardino, and Orlando are sadly just the beginning.

    One does not have to argue that all Muslims agree with such doctrines or that such interpretations are correct to demonstrate the truth of the proposition. Certainly groups like the Muslim Brotherhood, al-Qaeda, and ISIS recognize such duties, they appeal to them all the time. A common thread among these groups is the demand to re-establish Islamic law so that these duties can be given greater legal effect. Not only is this not complicated; it is really quite simple.

    Counter-terror analysis that incorporates these duties into their threat analysis arrive at simplified understandings of the threat that delivers clarity and predictability in support of targetable decision-making capable of supporting strategies. Counter-terror analysis of Islamic-based terrorism that fails to recognize these duties is incoherent, incompetent and assures defeat.

    When glossing over basic truths by reference to scientized behavioral models, news-cycle experts obscure the issue while diluting our ability to recognize the lethal simplicity of the actual threat. As with the violent extremism narrative generally, the very memes used to discuss Orlando distort the reality of the event being covered. The relationship between duties and jihadi acts was first explained when at CENTCOM in Doha, Qatar in 2005. The goal then was to explain how some Iraqis engaged in jihadi suicide attacks against fellow Muslims in Iraq in ways that distinguished between actors and non-actors in an all-Muslim forum. The explanation is easily transferable to attacks in the West today.

    There was clear warning that ISIS would attack. Reviewing recent statements from ISIS and al Qaeda before Memorial Day, I warned of strong indicators of terror attacks. In a speech in May, the ISIS Spokesperson Muhammad declared that “Ramadan has come near, and it is the month of raids and jihad, the month of conquest.” He added that these “raids and jihads” should focus on innocent civilians.

    Know that inside the lands of the belligerent crusaders, there is no sanctity of blood and no existence of those called “innocents” … Know that your targeting those who are called “civilians” is more beloved to us and more effective, as it is more harmful, painful, and a greater deterrent to them. So go forth, O muwahhidin everywhere! It might be that you attain great reward or even shahadah during Ramadan.

    Wahhabis dislike the term Wahhabi, preferring the term “muwahhidin.” Both al-Qaeda and ISIS are “muwahhidin.” Attaining the “great reward” concerns a declared jihadi being killed in jihad.

    Also in May, al-Qaeda released its latest issue of Inspire magazine where, in an article on economic warfare, the first example was of Muhammad ordering raids on caravans during Ramadan. Along with a section on bomb making, the Spring 2016 issue of Inspire reiterated al-Qaeda’s preferred strategy of individual jihad for attacks in the West:

    Firstly: Definition of Lone Jihãd:

    The first is Jihãd: It is to make every effort to strive, and to endure in fighting the enemy.

    The second is fardy (Individually): and what is intended by Lone Jihad is that the brother should implement jihad, as we have defined, but individually and independently in the land of the kuffar without having to report to the Mujahideen leadership. And this individualism and independence is the main reason for it (Lone Jihad) to be termed as a Lone Wolf attack.

    America is a Kuffar nation. In the definition, Inspire recognizes the weakness of “lone wolf” when pointing out that it separates the individual nature of the actor from the jihadi mission served. As far back as 2005, the West had warning of al-Qaeda/ISIS attacks in 2016 when Der Spiegel published “What al-Qaeda Really Wants” that disclosed al-Qaeda’s operational plan including “Phase 6”, the period when 2016 was identified as the year to initiate “total confrontation.” As important, al-Qaeda first announced that its Western strategy would be based on individual jihad in its first release of Inspire magazine back in 2010. For six years al-Qaeda has openly been priming the pump on individual jihad in America.

    Written in English, Inspire is directed at prospects already in the West. It hardly matters to the individual jihad schema that the only time many of the actors identify with al-Qaeda or ISIS is when they act.

    From target sets, to tactics, to timing, there should be no surprise concerning terror attacks like the ones just witnessed in Orlando. We have long since been put on notice.

    The difference between understanding Islamic terror and not can be measured by the chasm that exists between individual jihad and lone wolf.

    Individual jihad has roots reaching back to the time of Muhammad, gives rise to duties, which al Qaeda announced as its principle strategy. Lone Wolf is a constructed term our counter-terror community adopted to avoid using “individual jihad” when pretending to address Islamic terrorism under the rubric of violent extremism. counte

    Individual jihad has a historic basis in shariah that is supported by the duty of jihad and has a doctrinal basis. Lone wolf facilitates violent extremism narratives that anticipate idiopathic or sui generis explanations grounded in trendy pop-psychology rationales. “He was crazy, what’s there to investigate?”

    Pretending to serve as a proxy, lone wolf masks individual jihad.

    Individual jihad requires analysts to know what they’re talking about while lone wolf simply expects a transient grasp of the narrative. One requires mastery of the subject matter, the other simply calls for the ability to mimic a common list of talking points.

    It’s no accident that the counter-terror community adopted lone wolf at about the time al-Qaeda announced its new strategy. When you get down to it, the difference between individual jihad and lone wolf terrorism is the difference between winning and losing this war. In the face of individual jihad, the sophistry of lone wolves, self-radicalization, and violent extremism, along with the faux activities it spawns, may best be understood as an entertaining form of disinformation.

    Stephen Coughlin is a retired U.S. Army Intelligence Officer, Counter-terror analyst and co-founder of Unconstrained Analytics, Inc. In his recent book, Catastrophic Failure: Blindfolding America in the Face of Jihad, Coughlin challenges the prevailing approach to the counter-terror effort.

  6. AMMAN, Jordan (AP) — A car bomb exploded on the Syrian-Jordanian border early on Tuesday, the Jordanian military said, killing and wounding several Jordanian border guards in an attack that raised new questions about the pro-Western kingdom’s stability.

    The military said the blast went off at about 5:30 a.m., close to a makeshift tent encampment where tens of thousands of Syrian refugees are stranded, awaiting entry to Jordan.

    The camp, known as Ruqban, is one of two that have sprung up along an earthen barrier, or berm, which runs along the border in a remote desert area.

    A booby-trapped car exploded at the berm, “killing and wounding a number of border guards,” the military said in a statement.

  7. unmen in southern Nigeria kidnapped three expatriate cement industry workers and at least one Nigerian worker after killing their local driver early on Wednesday morning, police said on Wednesday.

    The workers, two of whom police said later escaped, were contractors for cement company Lafarge Africa. Two were Australians and one a New Zealander, said Irene Ugbo, a spokeswoman for Cross River state police.

  8. UNITED NATIONS United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on Wednesday met Saudi Arabia’s powerful deputy crown prince, who remarked that he was not angry with the U.N. chief for briefly blacklisting a Saudi-led coalition for killing children in Yemen.

    Mohammed bin Salman is in New York this week, mainly for meetings with business leaders, after a visit to Washington and the U.S. West Coast.

  9. Main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP) ?stanbul deputy Sezgin Tanr?kulu has said that a total of 37,922 people have lost their lives due to human rights violations during the last 13 years under the Justice and Development Party (AK Party) rule.

    Tanr?kulu held a press conference at the Parliament on Wednesday, saying that 37,922 Turkish citizens have lost their lives due to human rights violations between 2002 and 2015.

    The killings include femicides, worker deaths, suspicious soldier deaths and child deaths, according to Tanr?kulu. He said that 17,057 people died due to work related accidents between 2002 and 2015, adding that the government has taken no precautions to prevent that.

  10. AhlulBayt News Agency – This evening, the top rebel commander and Idlib emir of Jabhat al-Nusra (Syrian al-Qaeda group), Abo Abd Allah Jabal, was killed by a Russian airstrike in northwestern Aleppo; other reports claim his cause of death to be from an IED (roadside bomb) by unknown assailants during a meeting in the area.

    Abo Abd Allah Jabal spearheaded the al-Nusra Front during recent successful battles at Al-Eis and Khan Touman; he was said to be leader of the extremist rebel group’s assault troops and highly feared elite suicide squad.

  11. WASHINGTON — Bahrain’s efforts to build national reconciliation after it crushed street protests in 2011 have stalled, and the Western ally in the Gulf has not implemented recommendations to protect freedom of expression, including nonviolent dissent, according to a U.S. State Department report obtained by Reuters.

    In the report, which was delivered to the U.S. Congress this week, the State Department says that Bahrain has made progress toward implementing reforms recommended by an independent commission, but “more work remains to be done.”

    The report, which was delayed for months, appears to represent muted criticism of a strategically-located country that hosts the U.S. Navy’s Fifth Fleet as a bulwark against Iran.

    The human rights record of Bahrain, where a Shi’ite majority is ruled by a Sunni monarchy, has been criticized by the United States, Britain and rights groups.

  12. Last week, Japanese Defense Minister Gen Nakatani announced that the Japanese government has extended Japan’s participation in a multinational counter-piracy mission in the Gulf of Yemen and off the coast of Somalia by another year.

    “This morning, a meeting of the National Security Council and a cabinet meeting were held, and it was decided that the counter-piracy operations in the seas off Somalia in the Gulf of Aden will be extended for one year,” Nakatani said during a press conference at the defense ministry on June 17.

    Given Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s “Proactive Commitment to Peace” diplomacy, the approval for an extension of Japan’s military presence in Africa was never truly in doubt. Japan has been repeatedly criticized that its “proactive commitment’” to peace often merely means official development assistance.

  13. Russia will take adequate measures to counter NATO’s increasingly “aggressive rhetoric,” President Vladimir Putin told MPs at the closing session of the State Duma. He called to create an international security system open to all countries.

    It’s necessary to create a collective security system void of “bloc-like thinking” and open to all countries, Putin said on Wednesday in Russia’s parliament.

    “Russia is ready to discuss this extremely important issue,” he said, adding that such proposals have been so far left unanswered by Western countries.

    “But again, as it was at the beginning of WWII, we don’t see any positive response,” he continued. “On the contrary, NATO ups its aggressive rhetoric and aggressive actions near our borders.”

    “In this environment, we must pay special attention to strengthening our country’s defense capabilities,” he concluded.

  14. Chinese hospitals are conducting far more organ-transplant operations than the country has officially acknowledged, according to a lengthy new report that raises troubling questions about the source of human body parts used to heal China’s elite and the foreigners who pay high prices to receive new kidneys and livers.

    Although much of China’s transplant industry is shrouded in secrecy, officials have said 146 approved hospitals transplanted 7,785 organs last year.

    But a team of researchers, including two prominent Canadian human-rights activists, has sifted through a huge number of hospital records, accounts from doctors, press clippings and public statements to tabulate numbers of Chinese transplant-centre beds and doctors – and from that has calculated how many transplants take place.

    By their count, Chinese surgeons are transplanting between 60,000 and 100,000 organs a year, a number they say far surpasses the volume of kidneys, livers and hearts available from voluntary donors.

    One hospital alone, the Oriental Organ Transplant Centre at the Tianjin First Centre Hospital, is probably doing more than 6,000 transplants a year, they estimate.

        • They are starting on political prisoners since the ordinary criminals tend to have problems starting with STDs and working down from there.

      • Larry Niven’s Gil the Arm stories.

        From what I hear they are having better luck growing the new organs outside the body since trying to regrow often ends up with the new heart growing inside the old one.

        They are suppose to be having luck regrowing the telemeres (sp?) on the ends of the cells slowly correct the mistakes make when splitting. This is apparently letting the test subjects slowly grow young. I don’t know if they are testing on humans yet or are still working on animals.

  15. UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) – United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon described North Korea’s latest ballistic missile launches as a “brazen and irresponsible act” ahead of a U.N. Security Council meeting on the issue on Wednesday.

    North Korea, or the DPRK, launched what appeared to be an intermediate-range missile on Wednesday to a high altitude in the direction of Japan before it plunged into the sea about two hours after a similar test failed.

  16. Good thing thr UN took the Saudi’s off their ‘naughty list’:

    SANAA, Yemen — An airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition on Tuesday mistakenly killed eight civilians building a home in an area on the border between Yemen’s southern provinces of Lahj and Taiz, security officials said.

    They said the airstrike, which also wounded nine civilians, was called in by pro-government fighters who were locked in a fierce battle with Shiite rebels for control over a mountain overlooking a key military base that is home to forces from Yemen alongside allied troops from Sudan and the United Arab Emirates.

    They said Jalis mountain was eventually captured by the Iranian-backed rebels, known as Houthis, after a three-day battle in which some 45 people were killed from both sides.

  17. ISLAMABAD: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (Pemra) has barred actor Hamza Ali Abbasi and TV show host Shabbir Abu Talib from hosting their Ramazan shows on Aaj TV and News One respectively.

    Know more: Ahmadi persecution, blasphemy law and other things Hamza Ali Abbasi will discuss on his bold Ramazan show

    In a statement issued on Friday, Pemra said that it had received 1,133 complaints through Whatsapp, Twitter and telephone calls regarding the transmissions.

    The complainants said both shows had aired provocative content.

    “During these transmissions, ratings remain the focus under the guise of Ramazan shows,” read the Pemra statement, adding that “provocative conversations took place during the shows which has led to much anger and sadness”.

  18. Remember, the Jews are our canaries in the coal mine. Sad, but true!

    Anti-Semitic assaults rose dramatically in the United States last year to 56, and the overall number of hateful incidents targeting Jews increased by 3 percent, the Anti-Defamation League said in a report on Wednesday.

    Colleges in particular have become a place where Jews are particularly exposed to harassment, with anti-Semitic incidents at university campuses accounting for 10 percent of occurrences nationwide, the league said.

    “We are disturbed that violent anti-Semitic incidents are rising,” Jonathan Greenblatt, chief executive of the Anti-Defamation League, said in a statement.

    The 56 anti-Semitic assaults nationwide in 2015 represented an increase of more than 50 percent from the year before, according to the ADL.

    The group said it was not clear what may have led to the spike.

  19. TRIPOLI The number of people killed in an explosion and in clashes between militiamen and locals in a town east of Tripoli has risen to 40, an official said on Wednesday.

    Al-Sharif Ahmad Jaddallah, a spokesman for the municipal council in Garabulli, said at least 25 people had been wounded and victims’ remains were still being gathered.

    Garabulli officials say fighting erupted after a dispute on Monday between a local shopkeeper and a member of a militia who was refusing to pay for goods. After the shopkeeper shot the militiaman in the leg, other militia members returned to loot the shop and burned down several houses, Jaddallah said.

  20. Saudi’s Deputy Crown Prince meets Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg

    Saudi Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman visited the headquarters of Facebook on Wednesday and met with the tech giant’s founder and president, Mark Zuckerberg.

    Saudi Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman arrived in San Francisco on Sunday, in the second phase of his US tour, which started last week with a visit to Washington where he met with President Barack Obama and other top US officials.

    During his time in California the Deputy Crown Prince included meetings with a number of executives in Silicon Valley, the home of the world’s tech giants – as well as meeting Zuckerberg,

    PICS :

    Saudi Arabia and Microsoft ink plans to support Vision 2030

    Saudi Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, second met with Satya Narayana Nadella, chief executive officer of Microsoft, at the IT giant’s office in Silicon Valley in San Francisco on Tuesday.

    During the meeting, a memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed, under which Microsoft will train young Saudis and will support Saudi Arabia in its ambitious digital and knowledge-based innovation transformation under Vision 2030.

    Microsoft inked another deal to boost the Decision Making Support Center at the Royal Court by setting up systems and operational programs with the help of a team of experts from Microsoft.

    Speaking on the occasion, Nadella expressed Microsoft’s interest in entering into partnership with Saudi Arabia in its initiative to transform into a digital Kingdom.

    “Microsoft will come out with technology to translate the Vision 2030 into a reality, with a focus on human capital and innovation, and we aspire to achieve it as early as possible,” he said.

    The deputy crown prince also met with Salman Khan, president of Khan Academy. They discussed various aspects of academic partnership between Misk Foundation, and the academy, which is a global non-profit educational organization with the aim of providing a “free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere”. The Deputy Crown Prince also met with the founder and executive director of Ober company.

    In a related development, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology has recorded more than 30 initiatives as part of the National Transformation Program 2020. Prince Turki Bin Saud, president of the city, said that these included scientific partnership to establish 10 research centers in the United States. These centers will be devoted to implementing top priority research projects for the Kingdom in the vital strategic fields, he told the Saudi Press Agency.

    Prince Mohammed bin Salman is currently visiting the US where he met US officials last week including President Barack Obama. He’s currently meeting with technology giants in Silicon Valley in talks about further investments.

  21. (CNN)The man arrested for trying to disarm a police officer inside a Donald Trump rally in Las Vegas Saturday told authorities he intended to use the gun “to kill Trump,” according to a new criminal complaint.
    Police arrested the 19-year-old after he attempted to pull a police officer’s gun from its holster inside a Las Vegas theater where Trump, the presumptive Republican nominee, was holding a campaign rally.
    Police said Michael Sandford, a Briton, struck up a conversation with a Las Vegas Metropolitan Police officer under the pretense that he was seeking to get an autograph. During the conversation, police said Sandford tried to pull the officer’s service weapon from its holster.

  22. Several countries, including Sweden, Germany, France and Finland, are investigating or prosecuting alleged perpetrators of grave crimes in Syria in the first attempts to seek justice for victims of the conflict which is now in its sixth year.

    The efforts under way in Europe follow a double-veto by Russia and China of a U.N. Security Council resolution backed by more than 60 countries in May 2014 that would have referred the Syrian conflict to the International Criminal Court.

    At a U.N. panel discussion Tuesday entitled “First Cracks in the Syrian Impunity Wall,” supporters and several opponents of the legal actions in Europe sparred over the search for justice in Syria.

  23. An influential pro-ISIS group has published a graphic presenting the various methods so-called “lone wolves” can utilize to strike at infidels wherever they live.

    Despite the back and forth chatter surrounding whether Orlando shooter Omar Mateen had any direct ties with the Caliphate, it appears the ISIS propaganda machine is still interested in exploiting the attack in order to encourage more in the future.

    In an online graphic entitled “Islamic State Wolfs” supporters are instructed to inflict whatever injuries they can–“Shoot them, stab then, blow them (up), remmed (ram) them, throw them, intoxicate them, hit them, scream (at) them.”

  24. ‘Cause Moselmen are so tolerant towards members of other religions, especially minority ones:

    On a bright day in downtown Kabul, Jagtar Singh Laghmani was in his traditional herb shop when a man turned up, drew a knife and told him to convert to Islam or he would cut his throat. Only bystanders and other shopkeepers saved his life.

    The incident earlier this month was the latest attack on a dwindling community of Sikhs and Hindus in Afghanistan, a deeply conservative Muslim country struggling with growing insecurity caused by an Islamist insurgency and economic challenges.

    Once a thriving minority, only a handful of Sikh and Hindu families remain. Many have chosen to flee the country of their birth, blaming growing discrimination and intolerance.

    “This is how we begin our day – with fear and isolation. If you are not a Muslim, you are not a human in their eyes,” said Jagtar Singh, speaking in his tiny shop in the bustling center of Kabul. “I don’t know what to do or where to go.”

  25. KANDAHAR, Afghanistan (AP) — The Taliban on Tuesday ambushed a series of buses and cars in southern Afghanistan’s Helmand province, forcing people out of the vehicles and abducting around 60 passengers, an Afghan official said.

    The insurgents later said they released all but 27 of those abducted.

    According to Mohammad Ismail, a district police chief in Helmand, the attack happened in Gareshk district. The Taliban forced the buses and cars to stop at gunpoint, he said, adding that it’s not known where the Taliban took the abducted passengers.

    The abductions come amid stepped-up Taliban attacks as part of their summer offensive. The insurgents frequently target buses carrying civil servants, or those perceived to be working for the Kabul government.

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